Joint Photographic Experts Group
The JPEG standard (ISO/IEC 10918) was created in 1992 (latest version, 1994) as the result of a process that started in 1986. Though, this standard is generally considered as a single specification, in reality it is composed of four separate parts and an amalgam of coding modes.
Part 1 of JPEG (ISO/IEC 10918-1 | ITU-T Recommendation T.81) specifies the core coding technology and it incorporates many options for encoding photographic images. Part 2 defines the compliance testing. Part 3 defines a set of extensions to the coding technologies of Part 1, and via an amendment the SPIFF file format was introduced. Part 4 focuses on the registration of JPEG profiles, SPIFF profiles, SPIFF tags, SPIFF color spaces, SPIFF compression types, and defines the Registration Authorities. And lastly, Part 5 specifies the JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF). Without any doubt, it can be stated that JPEG has been one of the most successful multimedia standards defined so far.
While JPEG (Rec. ITU T.81 | ISO/IEC 10918) is still the most dominant still image format around, it may seem surprising that ISO/IEC never provided a reference software demonstrating a proper implementation of the standard. Therefore, JPEG initiated an initiative to create a new reference implementation for ISO/IEC 10918. More information on the call can be found here: https://jpeg.org/items/20170728_cfp_jpeg_reference_software.html.
JPEG File Interchange Format
JPEG File Interchange Format (JFIF)